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Coronary Artery Disease

Coronary Artery Disease - DiaPat® KardiOM Test

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the major causes of death worldwide causing almost every second death. Most preventive health check-ups however, are not sensitive for early alterations or are associated with invasive or radiant procedures. The DiaPat® KardiOM Test analyses the urine proteome and allows an accurate and non-invasive detection of coronary artery disease, even before symptoms occur.

Primarily patients, who display no clear symptoms, but also all patients carrying increased risks, such as for example diabetes patients, smokers and overweight individuals can benefit from it. Early diagnosis facilitates early treatment or a change of habits (diet, physical activity, giving up smoking).

Advantages of the DiaPat® KardiOM Test

  • Painless (non-invasive urine sample)
  • Riskless (no negative side effects)
  • Reliable (highly reliable detection of CAD with >85% accuracy)


Risk factors:

  • stress
  • physical inactivity
  • high blood pressure (arterial hypertension)
  • overweight 
  • diabetes (approx. 80% of diabetes patients die of vascular complications)
  • consumption of alcohol and nicotine
  • dyslipidemia
  • oxidative stress
  • age
  • gender
  • family history

Comparison of current methods


Method Invasive Ionising radiation Contrast Agent Side effects/risks
DiaPat® KardiOM Test No No No


Echocardiography No No No In particular coronary blood vessels are difficult to assess
Magnetic resonance imagine No No No

Image of fast moving organs (e.g. heart) is problematic;
Intolrerance of contrast agent;
Claustrophobia and anxiety (small tube diameter)

PET scanning No


Yes Often in combination with CT to improve spatial resolution
Cardiac computer tomograph No Yes Yes very high exposure dose (up to 1000 times higher than normal X-ray dose)
Coronary angiography Yes Yes Yes

Intolerance of contrast agent;
Injury of vessels and / or nerves;
Ventricular fibrillation;
Heart attack


Carty DM, Schiffer E, Delles C.
Proteomics in hypertension
J Hum Hypertens. 2013 Apr;27(4):211-6. doi: 10.1038/jhh.2012.30. Epub 2012 Aug 9.

Kuznetsova T, Mischak H, Mullen W, Staessen JA
Urinary proteome analysis in hypertensive patients with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction.
Eur Heart J. 2012 Sep;33(18):2342-50. Epub 2012 Jul 11.

Dawson J, Walters M, Delles C, Mischak H, Mullen W.
Urinary proteomics to support diagnosis of stroke.
PLoS One. 2012;7(5):e35879. Epub 2012 May 16.

Mullen W, Gonzalez J, Siwy J, Franke J, Sattar N, Mullan A, Roberts S, Delles C, Mischak H, Albalat A.
A Pilot Study on the Effect of Short-Term Consumption of a Polyphenol Rich Drink on Biomarkers of Coronary Artery Disease Defined by Urinary Proteomics.
J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Dec 28;59(24):12850-7

Schiffer E, Liabeuf S, Lacroix C, Temmar M, Renard C, Monsarrat B, Choukroun G, Lemke HD, Vanholder R, Mischak H, Massy ZA; on behalf of the European Uremic Toxin Work Group (EUTox).
Markers of vascular disease in plasma from patients with chronic kidney disease identified by proteomic analysis.
J Hypertens. 2011 Apr;29(4):783-790

Carty DM, Siwy J, Brennand JE, Zürbig P, Mullen W, Franke J, McCulloch JW, North RA, Chappell LC, Mischak H, Poston L, Dominiczak AF, Delles C.
Urinary Proteomics for Prediction of Preeclampsia.
Hypertension. 2011 Mar;57(3):561-9

Delles C, Schiffer E, von zur Muhlen C, Peter K, Rossing P, Parving HH, Dymott JA a, Neisius U, Zimmerli LUa, Snell-Bergeon JK, Maahs DM, Schmieder RE, Mischak H, Dominiczak AF
Urinary proteomic diagnosis of coronary artery disease: identification and clinical validation in 623 subjects
J Hypertens. 2010 Nov;28(11):2316-22.

Snell-Bergeon JK, Maahs DM, Ogden LG, Kinney GL, Hokanson JE, Schiffer E, Mischak H, Rewers M
Evaluation of urinary biomarkers for coronary artery disease, diabetes, and diabetic kidney disease
Diabetes, Technology and Therapeutics 2009, 11(1): 1-9

Muhlen C, Schiffer E, Zuerbig P, Kellmann M, Brasse M, Meert N, Vanholder RC, Dominiczak AF, Chen YC, Mischak H, Bode C, Peter K
Evaluation of Urine Proteome Pattern Analysis for Its Potential To Reflect Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis in Symptomatic Patients
Journal of Proteome Research 2009, 8(1): 335-345

Zimmerli LU, Schiffer E, Zurbig P, Good DM, Kellmann M, Mouls L, Pitt AR, Coon JJ, Schmieder RE, Peter K, Mischak H, Kolch W, Delles C, Dominiczak AF
Urinary proteomic biomarkers in coronary artery disease
Mol Cell Proteomics 2008, 7(2): 290-298

Geppert HG, von zur Mühlen C, Mischak H
Proteomanalyse zur Erkennung und Therapieevaluierung der koronaren Herzkrankheit
journal of preventive medicine 2007, 3(2): 160-168

Background information

Generally the term cardiovascular disease is used to describe diseases of the cardiovascular system. More specifically, it describes diseases associated with arteriosclerosis deposits of lipids, blood clots, connective tissue and calcium in blood vessels.


Cardiovascular diseases in form of coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Europe, CAD causes around 1.9 million deaths per year (European Cardiovascular Disease Statistics, 2005). This represents almost 50% of all deaths recorded in the EU. The coronary (or ischaemic) heart disease is one of the most frequent diseases. Worldwide, similar figures are recorded in developed countries. Therefore coronary heart disease represents a significant social and economic burden worldwide. Patients often progress to severe, life threatening CAD without manifest clinical symptoms. Early diagnosis of CAD in its pre-symptomatic stages would allow effective targeted primary prevention.


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